Friday, 9 December 2016

18 tips for managing stress

Image result for image of stressed personStress is a normal part of everyday life and its almost unavoidable; it could be positive or negative but regardless it leaves an individual feeling emotionally and physically overwhelmed. Nevertheless positive stress is good  as it can motivate you and help you become more productive while negative stress can be harmful and often leads to anxiety, mental and physical problems as well as decreased performance.
     Positive stress may arise from factors like starting a new job, having a child, holiday season, taking a vacation, planning an event, receiving a promotion at work, taking educational classes or learning a new hobby e.t.c. On the other hand, negative stress may arise from factors like excessive job demands, death of a loved one , separation from a spouse, conflicts in interpersonal relationships, hospitalization, unemployment, financial problems and many more.

18 Tips for managing stress effectively
  1. Start off your day with breakfast.
  2. Instead of drinking coffee all day, switch to fruit juice.
  3. Avoid trying to do multiple tasks at the same time.
  4. Learn to say NO. Stop trying to please everybody.
  5. Make time for relaxation and fun
  6. Develop a support network (family and friends).
  7. Always ask for help whenever you feel overwhelmed.
  8. Take a mindful walk and practice meditation regularly.
  9. Get regular exercises.
  10. Organize your work by setting priorities.
  11. Try to find something funny in a difficult situation.
  12. Go for vacation or special weekend getaway.
  13. Listen to music.
  14. Visit a spa regularly.
  15. Always appreciate and praise yourself at the end of every task performed.
  16. Reward yourself  for every goal accomplished or targets met.
  17. Optimize your health with good nutrition, sleep and rest.
  18. Pray to God.

Thursday, 1 December 2016

8 ways of overcoming body odor

Image result for images of body odourBody Odor (popularly known as B.O) is a perceived unpleasant smell our bodies can produce when bacteria that lives on the skin break down sweat into acids.B.O becomes evident and pronounced if certain steps are not taken before or when an individual reaches puberty. B.O is more likely to occur in the groin, feet ,armpits, genitals, pubic hair and feet. The following are predisposing factors to B.O:
  • Obese people
  • People who regularly eat spicy foods e.g garlic, onions e.t.c
  • Individuals with certain medical conditions
  • Individuals on certain medications 
  • Some drinks like alcohol
  • People suffering from excessive sweating(hyperhidrosis)
Tips on preventing or overcoming body odor
  1. Regularly shave the armpits and pubic hair because hair slows down evaporation of sweat. 
  2. Shower at least once a day and twice a day if the weather is extremely hot.
  3. Use antibacterial soap when bathing and washing the armpits.
  4. Reduce intake of spicy foods because they have the tendency to make sweat smell pungent
  5. Wear clothes made of cotton or wool because this allows the skin to breathe and enhances evaporation of sweat.
  6. Always keep your clothes fresh and clean.
  7. Avoid certain drinks like alcohol; avoid smoking as well
  8. Use antiperspirant or deodorant; this blocks the action of sweat glands resulting in less sweating.

Friday, 18 November 2016

10 Awesome benefits of drinking water

Image result for picture of someone drinking  water
Proper hydration is essential in order to stay alive and healthy, thus the importance of drinking adequate water can not be over emphasized. Water is quite beneficial and easily accessible yet a lot of us take its availability for granted. Health benefits of drinking water are numerous and in-exhaustive,here are few.

1. It helps with weight loss : Adequate intake of water decreases appetite and hunger and thus making you eat less.Water also has zero calories. 

2. It helps the heart function better by supporting the heart.

3. It prevents certain skin conditions, clears the skin of any toxins and also gives the skin a younger and healthier appearance.

4.  It boosts the immune system, fights infections, thus reducing the likelihood of falling sick.

5.  It enhances digestion thereby preventing constipation and piles.

6.  It makes exercising easier by boosting energy  and regulating body temperature.

7.  It improves concentration thereby increasing productivity because dehydration slows down mental performance.

8.  It stops dizziness and reduces the intensity of headache especially in people who are susceptible to headache and migraine. 

9.  It reduces the risk of certain cancers like colon cancer(cancer of the large bowel).

10.  It improves oral health because dehydration reduces saliva production which is a predisposing factor to dental diseases.
  
Tips for drinking more water
  • Start your day by drinking a glass of water when you get up in the morning. 

  • Try to drink about 2 litres of water per day.

  • Drink a glass of water before and after meals.

  • Carry a bottle of water with you whenever you leave home.

  • Always choose water over soft drinks.

  • Keep a close check on your urine, it should be pale yellow in color (water helps maintain a healthy urinary system).

Friday, 11 November 2016

D.I.Y: Oral Rehydration Solution

Image result for picTURE OF A BOWL WITH SPOONSOral rehydration solution(ORS) is a therapy that helps to prevent or replace lost fluids from diarrhea and/or vomiting and its the most effective and cheapest way of managing diarrhea especially before you get access to a health care facility.However, do you know you can save money by preparing this solution on your own rather than buying the prepacked ones.It is very easy to prepare with items you already have in your kitchen.

Requirements
  1. 1000mls(1 litre ) of water
  2. A bowl  
  3. A kitchen wooden spatula and teaspoons
  4. 6 teaspoons of sugar
  5. 1/2 teaspoon of salt preferably iodized salt
Method 
  1. Wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water
  2. Wash the bowl ,wooden spatula and teaspoons as well with soap and water
  3. Put water on fire and allow it to boil .
  4. Allow water to cool after boiling.
  5. Measure 1 litre of boiled water into the bowl.
  6. Add 6 teaspoons of sugar to the water.
  7. Stir with the spatula and add 1/2 teaspoon of salt .
  8. Continue stirring the mixture with the spatula till the salt and sugar dissolve properly.
Administration
  1. Give 1/2 litre of ORS each day to babies and toddlers who have diarrhea.
  2. Give 1 litre of ORS each day to children who have diarrhea and/or vomiting.
  3. Give 3 litres of ORS each day to adults who have diarrhea and/or vomiting.
Precautions
  1. Discard any left over ORS after 24 hours i.e prepare fresh ORS every 24 hours.
  2. Go to the nearest hospital as soon as possible and drink more ORS on your way.

Tuesday, 1 November 2016

12 ways to overcome smelly feet

    Image result for picture of a smelly feet We spend a lot of time on our feet and our shoes are very close to the place where a large collection of sweat glands live under the feet,sweat gets into our shoes and then bacteria arrive and start to grow, thereby predisposing us to smelly feet. Bromodosis is the medical term for smelly feet and this condition can be quite embarrassing, however it can be treated with simple foot hygiene.

Here are simple ways of overcoming smelly feet;

1.Wash your feet daily with antibacterial soap: Maintain good foot hygiene by bathing your feet daily and washing in between your toes and around the nail beds(these are places where bacteria thrive) and carefully dry them especially in between your toes with a dry flannel. 

2. Exfoliate your feet: This can be done by scrubbing your feet in order to remove dead skin. This can be achieved by soaking your feet in warm water and then scrub away the dead skin cells with a pumice stone.

3. Always keep your toenails short and clean, long nails harbor a lot of bacteria.

4. Moisturize your feet using lotions with nice fragrance.

5. Always keep your feet dry.

6. Wear socks : Socks help to absorb moisture.Avoid nylon socks as they do not absorb moisture.Cotton  socks are the best.

7. Always air and dry out your shoes before wearing them again especially when they get wet or soaked.

8. Try not to wear shoes at home.Allow your feet breathe when you are indoors.

9. Wear shoes that allow your feet breathe e.g leather shoes or shoes with fenestrated covering like sandals or open/peep toes.

10. Rub your regular hand sanitizer over your feet and gently spray a disinfectant into your shoes as well.

11. Sprinkle talcum powder into your shoes and rub some over your feet.

12. Keep your shoes clean by brushing, polishing and washing them if possible.

Saturday, 22 October 2016

Clean hands are safe hands!

Image result for picture of someone washing handsHandwashing is the most important means of preventing the spread of germs as well as the best way to keep yourself from getting sick. Whenever your hands get in contact with germs, you can unknowingly become infected simply by touching your eyes, nose or mouth and once a member of the family becomes ill, it's usually just a matter of time before the whole family comes down with the same illness.

When do you wash your hands?
  • Before and after cooking and eating.
  • Before and after using the bathroom.
  • After blowing one's nose, coughing or sneezing.
  • After touching animals including family pets.
  • After cleaning around the house
  • Before and after visiting or taking care of any sick friend or relative.
  • Whenever your hands feel sticky or dirty.
  • When your hands are visibly soiled 
Materials needed for handwashing are:
  • Soap that can form lather(this could be a plain soap, an antiseptic/medicated soap or detergent)
  • Water
  • A clean towel
How do you wash your hands?
Prior to washing your hands; rings,bracelets and wristwatches should be removed and long sleeves rolled up.Proper handwashing should take about 15 to 30seconds.
  • Wash your hands in water first
  • Use soap and lather up for about 20secs
  • Make sure you get in between the fingers and under the nails where germs like to hide and do not forget the wrists
  • Rinse and dry well with a clean towel
  • Image result for pictorial steps of social hand washing

Good handwashing is the first line of defense against the spread of many illnesses e.g common cold, diarrhea, flu e.t.c. Therefore, never underestimate the power of handwashing, the few seconds you spend at the sink could save you trips to the hospital.

Wednesday, 12 October 2016

REST & SLEEP

Image result for picture of black man sleeping in bedWith the increasing need to work hard and even harder to earn a living, hustling has become a normal way of life, thus, making it more difficult to get enough rest let alone adequate sleep. Here is an overview of what rest and sleep connotes, factors influencing the quality and quantity of sleep, dangers of not getting enough sleep and ways of ensuring one gets enough sleep.
         Rest connotes a condition in which the body is in decreased state of activity with the consequent feeling of being refreshed while sleep is a state of rest accompanied by inactivity and altered consciousness.
Most people can fall asleep easily and remain asleep until the desired waking time. Conversely, others rarely fall asleep without a struggle and then when they do, sleep is fragmented.
No rigid formula exists for the regular intervals and duration of sleep but it is important that each person follows a pattern of rest that maintains well-being.
        Despite individual variations, recommended daily sleep requirement is as follows:
  • Infants : 14 to 20 hours
  • Growing children : 10 to 14 hours
  • Adults : 7 to 9 hours.
A variety of factors influence both the quality and quantity of sleep e.g motivation , culture ,lifestyle&habits, illness, certain medications, unconducive environment, job demands and unreasonable deadlines, extracurricular activities, academic goals e.t.c.
Dangers of not getting adequate sleep or bad sleep pattern are numerous, few are:
  • Decreased competence and productivity at work.
  • Undermined energy and reduced sense of self
  • Risk of sleep-related motor-vehicle accidents.
  • Mental illness or psychiatric disorders e.t.c

 Tips on how to get adequate sleep
  1. Have a sleep dairy : This provides more specific data on your sleep patterns over a long period of time with which you can evaluate yourself.
  2. Have a bedtime routine especially for children ,this helps compliance.
  3. Prepare a restful environment : This can be created by having a comfortable bed,clean and tight bed linens, enough bed coverings, desired temperature of the room, adequate ventilation, quiet room,for some it could even be a certain smell or fragrance.
  4. Having a warm bath before going to bed.  Back rub or body massage too helps
  5. Eat appropriate bedtime snacks and beverage that can promote sleep e.g toast, crackers, a glass of fruit juice. Always avoid bedtime foods & beverages that interfere with sleep.
  6. Get your mind off work or work related issues especially when you want to go to bed.
  7. Think about sweet memories or reminisce on good and lovely things.

Wednesday, 5 October 2016

Do you have foul smelling breath?

Image result for picture of a man with halitosisHalitosis is popularly known as bad breath or foul smelling breath or breath that has unpleasant odor ,this odor can occur from time to time or it can be long lasting depending on the cause. It is usually caused by breakdown of food. Millions of bacteria live in the mouth particularly on the back of the tongue and when there is a build up of bacteria,toxins are released which make an individual's breath to smell. These bacteria are also responsible for tooth decay, gum disease e.t.c.

 Halitosis can be caused by a variety of factors namely:
  • Poor dental hygiene : Food trapped between the teeth will be broken down by bacteria resident in the mouth,so, improper or infrequent brushing and flossing of the teeth can lead to foul smelling breath.
  • Fasting or severe dieting : Abstaining from food for a prolonged period of time can also cause bad breath.
  • Smoking or use of tobacco : This stains the teeth ,irritates the gum , reduces sense of taste and ultimately makes breath smell.
  • Dry mouth : Lack of saliva can cause more bacteria than normal to build up in the mouth.
  • Diseases : Some underlying medical conditions can also predispose an individual to bad breath e.g kidney disease, liver disease, diabetes mellitus e.t.c.
  • Respiratory tract infections : Infections affecting the nose, throat , sinus or even the lungs can cause foul smelling breath.
  • Certain foods with strong flavors : Food particles from foods like ginger, garlic ,onions e.t.c can aslo induce bad breath.
  • Certain medications : Some types of drugs can also produce breath with unpleasant odor
  • Infections in the mouth : For example cavity in a tooth, tooth decay , gum disease.
  • Halitophobia : Certain psychological condition when people think they have bad breath when they do not have.
Halitosis can be prevented and managed in the following ways:
  1. Brush your teeth and tongue at least twice in a day with fluoride toothpaste and floss (in between the teeth) daily.
  2. Rinse your mouth with mouthwash if necessary.
  3. Avoid dryness of your mouth.Drink water regularly.
  4. Visit the dentist regularly (preferably every 6 months) for dental check-ups.
  5. See your dentist promptly if you have bad breath accompanied with loose tooth or teeth, painful,swollen gum that bleeds or if you still have bad breath after making changes to improve your dental hygiene
  6. Visit the hospital if your bad breath is accompanied with fever ,sore throat, cough, discolored discharges from the nose.

Saturday, 24 September 2016

7 tips on how to manage common minor disorders of pregnancy

Image result for picture of a pregnant black womanThe period of pregnancy is no doubt usually an exciting period for the expecting mother as well as her partner.A woman's body changes during pregnancy(most of the time the changes are normal)and she might experience some minor disorders,inability to manage these disorders well may make this period very uncomfortable and frustrating for the woman.The  minor disorders that can be experienced during pregnancy are numerous but below are 7 common disorders and useful tips on how to manage them easily.

  1. Nausea and Vomiting: Many pregnant women experience a degree of nausea and few vomit.This complaint occurs mostly during the first 3 months of pregnancy usually referred to as morning sickness but gradually disappears at the end of this time. The cause is usually a form of sensitivity  to the hormones released during pregnancy.It occurs usually when the woman wakes up in the morning or gets out of bed. Some women have severe vomiting called hyperemesis gravidarum which means excessive vomiting during pregnancy which requires hospitalization.
  Tips
  •  Eat meals in small portions
  •  Drink fluids between meals
  •  Eat at times of the day when nausea is less severe
  •  Eat a few dry meals like biscuit,snacks before getting out of bed in the morning
  •  Consume more of foods that contains protein e.g beans,nuts,cheese 
   2. Leg Cramps :This is quite common in late pregnancy and occurs mostly at night
       Tip 
  • Eat more foods high in calcium and potassium e.g carrots,milk,cheese,yam,green leafy vegetables,soybeans.
  3. Heart Burn : This is very frequent in late pregnancy as well.It is a burning feeling or pain in the stomach or between the breasts. It is often worse at night.
       Tips
  • Eat small meals more frequently
  • Take a glass of milk when the heart burn occurs
  • Sleep propped up with one or two extra pillows
  • Try antacid tablets or liquids as prescribed
 4. Constipation and haemorrhoids : Difficulty in passing stools occur in some pregnant women because there is reduced peristalsis(muscular movement that pushes food along the intestines) resulting from hormonal changes.Constipation and straining to empty the bowels overtime can lead to haemorrhoids(piles) which are swollen veins around the anus which can bleed during bowel movement.
   Tips
  • Eat more fruits and vegetables
  • Drink lots of water
  • Do light exercises everyday like walking
5. Frequency of urination : Increased frequency of urination is usually experienced in the early months of pregnancy and then comes back during the last months of pregnancy because the baby's head presses against the bladder. It's unavoidable and the woman should not be worried about it except it is accompanied by itches, burns or pains in which case a urinary tract infection might be suspected and then she needs to visit the hospital.

6. Swelling of the ankles and legs : This is called oedema and it is as a result of retention of fluid in body tissues during pregnancy. An average expectant mother is said to retain about 3 to 6 litres of fluid hence,oedema is a common occurence in pregnant women. Swelling of the feet in the evening is usually not serious but severe swelling during the day especially when the woman wakes up in the morning is a warning sign of pre-eclampsia which is a life threatening condition that requires hospitalization of the woman for proper medical care.
  Tips
  • Sit with your feet raised as often as possible.
 7. Sweating : Especially during late pregnancy, many women find that sweat more easily and feel hot as well which can be accompanied by night sweats. There's nothing to worry about.
  Tips
  • Avoid stressful activities
  • Take frequent rest periods
  • Have frequent cool baths
  • Drink plenty of water
  • Dress in cool and comfortable clothes.

PLEASE IF YOU EXPERIENCE SEVERITY OF ANY OF THESE DISORDERS,VISIT THE HOSPITAL

Wednesday, 7 September 2016

Ladies, do you dread your 'red days' ?

Image result for picture of a lady with dysmenorrheaSo many of us dread our monthly periods because of the very obvious reason-menstrual pains/cramps. Menstrual pains are pains felt by a woman in the abdomen or pelvic area during her monthly periods and so this kind of pain is periodic in nature.These cramps are caused by uterine contractions and the contractions are further strengthened by prostaglandins which are chemicals released from the uterus.
 The medical term for menstrual pain is 'dysmenorrhea' and it can be primary(if it is not as a result of an identifiable cause, this is the commonest form of dysmenorrhea) or secondary(if it is as a result of an underlying condition,this is often pathological in nature).
Irrespective of whether it is primary or secondary , menstrual pains can be so severe in some women that it alters their activities of daily living e.g work,school e.t.c.
   However,there are some home remedies which can help to reduce or alleviate the cramps and as well make you more comfortable and productive during your 'red days'.
Here are seven tips that have helped me in managing painful periods over the years;

1.Have a positive mindset.
  I made this the first remedy because its the most important of all the remedies.I used to be very sad and gloomy whenever my periods are near and to the extent of praying that I should miss my periods but the moment I changed my mindset and developed a positive attitude towards it, it became so easy for me to manage and I became even more productive during my 'red days'. So dear friends, joyfully expect your periods.

2.Apply heat.
   This can be in form of a hot water bottle placed over your lower abdomen, pelvic area or lower back for some minutes; for me I soak a small flannel/towel inside a bowl of hot water and then squeeze out the water and apply over my lower abdomen,this method really works like magic because it tends to dissolve blood clots and also ease blood flow but be very careful when handling hot water to avoid scald injury to your skin.

3.Exercises.
  I know the first thing that crossed your mind is going to the gym.NO!!!! You dont have to go to a gym,there are other forms of exercises that help reduce menstrual pains e.g dancing , running ,skipping e.t.c. For me brisk walking works for me a lot, I enjoy taking a walk or just strolling in the neighbourhood,it helps a lot.

4.Take a hot drink.
   A hot cup of tea works wonders.It has the same mode of action with the heat therapy,it enhances blood flow and also makes you warm.I ensure I keep myself warm during the 'red days' because warmth also reduces the cramps.

5.Improve your diet.
   We all know that high consumption of vegetables and low consumption of fat keeps the doctor away because it improves our overall wellbeing but i'm sure you never knew that vegetables reduce menstrual cramps simply because it helps to decrease the overall levels of inflammation in the body. So take more of veggies and take less of fat especially during the 'red days'.

6.Diversional therapy.
   By this I mean engaging yourself in activities that will distract you and take your mind off the pain but this has to be an activity that you love or probably you hobby.For me, listening to music and singing along really helps and ofcourse takes my mind away from the pain. So you can try your favorite activity or hobby e.g reading novels, watching tv , washing or cooking. It has to be something you enjoy doing.

7.Take mild analgesics
   For some of us who have severe cramps, taking analgesic is as important as the other six tips I mentioned earlier if we want to be very comfortable and ofcourse productive during the 'red days'. However mild analgesics are just fine e.g paracetamol and it can be purchased over the counter. Please never buy or take strong analgesics like narcotics without a medical prescription.Do not abuse drugs.

N.B IF ALL THESE REMEDIES STILL DO NOT REDUCE YOUR MENSTRUAL CRAMPS PLEASE SEE A DOCTOR.


Wednesday, 31 August 2016

Do you know your blood sugar numbers???????



Diabetes mellitus(DM) is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by elevated levels of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.DM is popularly known as ‘high blood sugar’.
Normally a certain amount of glucose circulates in the blood. The major sources of this glucose are absorption of ingested food in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and formation of glucose by the liver from food substances.
        Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, controls the level of glucose in the blood by regulating the production and storage of glucose. In the diabetic state, the cells may stop responding to insulin or the pancreas may stop producing insulin
entirely. This leads to hyperglycemia.
         Diabetes mellitus affects about 17 million people, 5.9 million of whom are undiagnosed. Diabetes is especially prevalent in the elderly, with up to 50% of people older than 65 suffering some degree of glucose intolerance.
Normal range for blood sugar:
  • Fasting: 70-99mg/dl
  • 2hrs after meals: Less than 140mg/dl
     A variety of portable glucose monitors(glucometer) are available in pharmacy shops and are quite easy to use at home.
Hand adding drop of blood to diabetic glucometer : Stock Photo

Classification of Diabetes
The major classifications of diabetes are:

Type 1 diabetes (previously referred to as insulin-dependent
diabetes mellitus)

Type 2 diabetes (previously referred to as non-insulin dependent
diabetes mellitus)

Gestational diabetes mellitus (this develops during pregnancy)

Diabetes mellitus associated with other conditions or syndromes

Risk Factors for Diabetes Mellitus
·        Family history of diabetes (ie, parents or siblings with diabetes)

  • Obesity (ie, ≥20% over desired body weight or BMI ≥27 kg/m2)

  •  Race/ethnicity (eg, Africans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans,

             Native Americans, Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders)

  • Age ≥45 years

  • Previously identified impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose

Tolerance

  • Hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg)

  • HDL cholesterol level ≤35 mg/dL (0.90 mmol/L) and/or triglyceride

           level ≥250 mg/dL (2.8 mmol/L)

  • History of gestational diabetes or delivery of babies over 9 lbs


Cardinal signs of diabetes mellitus
Warning signs of all types of diabetes include the “three Ps”: polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia.

  • Polyuria (increased urination)

  • Polydipsia (increased thirst)

  • Polyphagia (increased appetite)


Other symptoms include fatigue and weakness, sudden vision changes, tingling or numbness in hands or feet, dry skin, skin lesions or wounds that are slow to heal, and recurrent infections.
The onset of type 1 diabetes may also be associated with sudden weight loss or nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pains.

If diabetes mellitus remains uncontrolled, complications arise and some of these complications are:

  • Cardiovascular diseases

  • Kidney damage(nephropathy)

  • Eye damage(retinopathy)

  •   Foot damage

  •    Hearing impairment

  •  Skin conditions

  • Nerve damage(neuropathy) e.t.c


There are four keys to management of diabetes namely:
·        Nutritional management
·        Exercise
·        Regular monitoring of glucose levels
·        Drug therapy
·       
PLEASE HURRY AND VISIT ANY GOVERNMENT APPROVED HEALTH FACILTY ONCE YOU NOTICE ANY OR ALL OF THE THREE CARDINAL SIGNS OF DIABETES MELLITUS.

Friday, 19 August 2016

THE SILENT KILLER!!!!!!!!!!



Hypertension is sometimes called ‘the silent killer’ because people who have it are often symptom free.
Hypertension is the term used to signify high blood pressure or elevation in blood pressure either from an unidentified cause(primary hypertension) or an identified cause(secondary hypertension).
Primary hypertension is also called essential hypertension because it denotes high blood pressure from an unidentified cause while secondary hypertension is high blood pressure from an identified cause e.g kidney disease.
Most people who have high blood pressures exceeding 140/90mmHg are usually unaware of their elevated blood pressure. However,once identified, elevated blood pressure should be monitored at regular intervals because hypertension is a lifelong condition.
http://www.africashealthychoices.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Blood-pressure.jpg
Blood pressure has three levels namely:                          

  • Optimal
  • Normal

  • High normal


 CLASSIFICATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE FOR ADULTS AGE 18 AND OLDER
CATEGORY
SYSTOLIC(mmHg)

DIASTOLIC(mmHg)
Optimal
<120
    /
<80
Normal
<130
   /
<85
High normal
130-139
   /
85-89
Hypertension
 Stage 1

140-159

   /

90-99
 Stage 2
160-179
   /
100-109
 Stage 3
 ≥180
   /
 ≥110

So considering the chart above, hypertension is a systolic blood pressure greater than 140 mmHg and a diastolic pressure greater than 90 mm Hg over a sustained period, based on the average of two or more blood pressure measurements taken in two or more contacts with the health care provider after an initial screening.

However, hypertension can be prevented and managed with lifestyle modifications and they include:

Lose weight if overweight.
Limit alcohol intake to no more than 1 oz (30 mL) ethanol
    (e.g 24 oz [720 mL] beer, 10 oz [300 mL] wine, or 2 oz [60 mL]
    100-proof whiskey) per day or 0.5 oz (15 mL) ethanol per day
    for women and lighter weight people.

Increase aerobic physical activity (30 to 45 minutes most days
    of the week).         
Reduce sodium intake to no more than 100 mmol per day
    (   2.4 g sodium or 6 g sodium chloride).
Maintain adequate intake of dietary potassium                                  (approximately 90 mmol per day).
Maintain adequate intake of dietary calcium and magnesium
   for general health.
Stop smoking and reduce intake of dietary saturated fat and
   cholesterol for overall cardiovascular health.

N.B Please see a doctor for medical management once a diagnosis of hypertension has been established.