Wednesday, 31 August 2016

Do you know your blood sugar numbers???????



Diabetes mellitus(DM) is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by elevated levels of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.DM is popularly known as ‘high blood sugar’.
Normally a certain amount of glucose circulates in the blood. The major sources of this glucose are absorption of ingested food in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and formation of glucose by the liver from food substances.
        Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, controls the level of glucose in the blood by regulating the production and storage of glucose. In the diabetic state, the cells may stop responding to insulin or the pancreas may stop producing insulin
entirely. This leads to hyperglycemia.
         Diabetes mellitus affects about 17 million people, 5.9 million of whom are undiagnosed. Diabetes is especially prevalent in the elderly, with up to 50% of people older than 65 suffering some degree of glucose intolerance.
Normal range for blood sugar:
  • Fasting: 70-99mg/dl
  • 2hrs after meals: Less than 140mg/dl
     A variety of portable glucose monitors(glucometer) are available in pharmacy shops and are quite easy to use at home.
Hand adding drop of blood to diabetic glucometer : Stock Photo

Classification of Diabetes
The major classifications of diabetes are:

Type 1 diabetes (previously referred to as insulin-dependent
diabetes mellitus)

Type 2 diabetes (previously referred to as non-insulin dependent
diabetes mellitus)

Gestational diabetes mellitus (this develops during pregnancy)

Diabetes mellitus associated with other conditions or syndromes

Risk Factors for Diabetes Mellitus
·        Family history of diabetes (ie, parents or siblings with diabetes)

  • Obesity (ie, ≥20% over desired body weight or BMI ≥27 kg/m2)

  •  Race/ethnicity (eg, Africans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans,

             Native Americans, Asian Americans, Pacific Islanders)

  • Age ≥45 years

  • Previously identified impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose

Tolerance

  • Hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg)

  • HDL cholesterol level ≤35 mg/dL (0.90 mmol/L) and/or triglyceride

           level ≥250 mg/dL (2.8 mmol/L)

  • History of gestational diabetes or delivery of babies over 9 lbs


Cardinal signs of diabetes mellitus
Warning signs of all types of diabetes include the “three Ps”: polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia.

  • Polyuria (increased urination)

  • Polydipsia (increased thirst)

  • Polyphagia (increased appetite)


Other symptoms include fatigue and weakness, sudden vision changes, tingling or numbness in hands or feet, dry skin, skin lesions or wounds that are slow to heal, and recurrent infections.
The onset of type 1 diabetes may also be associated with sudden weight loss or nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pains.

If diabetes mellitus remains uncontrolled, complications arise and some of these complications are:

  • Cardiovascular diseases

  • Kidney damage(nephropathy)

  • Eye damage(retinopathy)

  •   Foot damage

  •    Hearing impairment

  •  Skin conditions

  • Nerve damage(neuropathy) e.t.c


There are four keys to management of diabetes namely:
·        Nutritional management
·        Exercise
·        Regular monitoring of glucose levels
·        Drug therapy
·       
PLEASE HURRY AND VISIT ANY GOVERNMENT APPROVED HEALTH FACILTY ONCE YOU NOTICE ANY OR ALL OF THE THREE CARDINAL SIGNS OF DIABETES MELLITUS.

Friday, 19 August 2016

THE SILENT KILLER!!!!!!!!!!



Hypertension is sometimes called ‘the silent killer’ because people who have it are often symptom free.
Hypertension is the term used to signify high blood pressure or elevation in blood pressure either from an unidentified cause(primary hypertension) or an identified cause(secondary hypertension).
Primary hypertension is also called essential hypertension because it denotes high blood pressure from an unidentified cause while secondary hypertension is high blood pressure from an identified cause e.g kidney disease.
Most people who have high blood pressures exceeding 140/90mmHg are usually unaware of their elevated blood pressure. However,once identified, elevated blood pressure should be monitored at regular intervals because hypertension is a lifelong condition.
http://www.africashealthychoices.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Blood-pressure.jpg
Blood pressure has three levels namely:                          

  • Optimal
  • Normal

  • High normal


 CLASSIFICATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE FOR ADULTS AGE 18 AND OLDER
CATEGORY
SYSTOLIC(mmHg)

DIASTOLIC(mmHg)
Optimal
<120
    /
<80
Normal
<130
   /
<85
High normal
130-139
   /
85-89
Hypertension
 Stage 1

140-159

   /

90-99
 Stage 2
160-179
   /
100-109
 Stage 3
 ≥180
   /
 ≥110

So considering the chart above, hypertension is a systolic blood pressure greater than 140 mmHg and a diastolic pressure greater than 90 mm Hg over a sustained period, based on the average of two or more blood pressure measurements taken in two or more contacts with the health care provider after an initial screening.

However, hypertension can be prevented and managed with lifestyle modifications and they include:

Lose weight if overweight.
Limit alcohol intake to no more than 1 oz (30 mL) ethanol
    (e.g 24 oz [720 mL] beer, 10 oz [300 mL] wine, or 2 oz [60 mL]
    100-proof whiskey) per day or 0.5 oz (15 mL) ethanol per day
    for women and lighter weight people.

Increase aerobic physical activity (30 to 45 minutes most days
    of the week).         
Reduce sodium intake to no more than 100 mmol per day
    (   2.4 g sodium or 6 g sodium chloride).
Maintain adequate intake of dietary potassium                                  (approximately 90 mmol per day).
Maintain adequate intake of dietary calcium and magnesium
   for general health.
Stop smoking and reduce intake of dietary saturated fat and
   cholesterol for overall cardiovascular health.

N.B Please see a doctor for medical management once a diagnosis of hypertension has been established.