Saturday, 26 October 2013

CHOLERA!!!! AN INFECTIOUS DISEASE

Cholera is an infection of the small intestine that causes a large amount of diarrhea and vomiting.It is caused by the bacterium vibrio cholerae.If untreated,it can lead to severe dehydration and even death.The disease is most common in places with poor sanitation,overcrowding,war and famine.
Vibrio cholerae,the bacterium that causes cholera is usually found in food or water contaminated by human waste e.g faeces from a person with the infection.The common sources are:
  • Foods and drinks sold by street vendors.
  • Vegetables grown with water containing human wastes.
  • Raw or undercooked meat,fish and seafoods caught in waters polluted with sewage.
  • Unpeeled fruits and vegetables.
  • Unpasteurized milk and dairy products.e.t.c.
When an individual consumes the contaminated food or water,the bacterium releases a toxin in the intestines that produces severe diarrhea.The symptoms begins as soon as a few hours or as long as five days after exposure to vibrio cholerae.The symptoms include:
  • Vomiting.
  • Severe watery diarrhea a.k.a rice-water stool.
  • Dehydration as a result of vomiting and diarrhea.
  • Low blood pressure.
  • Rapid heart rate.
  • Dryness of the mouth,throat,nose,e.t.c.
  • Thirst.
  • Muscle cramps
  • Shock and death could occur if untreated promptly.
However,cholera can be prevented by observing the following measures:
  • Ensure you drink water that has been either boiled or adequately disinfected or bottled water.
  • Ensure strict personal and environmental hygiene.
  • Proper and regular handwashing before and after toilet use
  • Proper washing of dishes and kitchen utensils.
  • Adequate washing of fruits and vegetables before consumption.


Once you develop severe,watery diarrhea and/or vomiting,seek medical attention immediately(visit a hospital),its important to get treatment as quickly as possible,delay may lead to shock or even death.

Sunday, 20 October 2013

RELIEF OF CHOKING

Choking occurs when food or an object/foreign body gets stuck in a person's throat(airway),thereby obstructing the individual's breathing.It  can also be referred to as foreign-body airway obstruction.Foreign bodies may cause a range of symptoms from mild to severe airway obstruction.
       
    SIGNS OF CHOKING
1.Inability to breathe or difficulty in breathing.
2.Forceful coughing.
3.Inability to speak.
4.Clutching the neck with the thumb and fingers.
5.High pitched noise while inhaling.e.t.c

    INTERVENTION
Use abdominal thrusts(Heimlich maneuver) to relieve choking in a victim 1 year of age or older.Follow these steps to perform abdominal thrusts on a victim who is standing or sitting.
1.Stand or kneel behind the victim  and wrap your arms around the victim's waist.
2.Make a fist with one hand.
3.Place the thumb side of your fist against the victim's abdomen(belly),in the midline ,slightly above the navel and well below the breastbone.
4.Grasp your fist with your other hand and press your fist into the victim's abdomen with a quick,forceful upward thrust(jerk).
5.Repeat thrusts until object is expelled from the airway(throat).
If the victim is pregnant or obese perform chest thrusts instead of abdominal thrusts.Follow these steps to perform chest thrusts.
1.Position yourself at the victim's side.
2.Make sure the victim is lying faceup on a firm,flat surface.
3.Put the heel of one hand on the center of the victim's chest on the lower half of  the breastbone.
4.Put the heel of your other hand on top of  the first hand.
5.Straighten your arms and position your shoulders directly over your hands.
6.Push hard and fast.
7.Repeat until object is expelled.
You can tell if you have successfully removed an airway obstruction if :
1.victim breaths without difficulty
2.you see and remove foreign body from the victim's mouth.

     

         

Tuesday, 15 October 2013

CONSTIPATION

    Constipation is a term used to describe abnormal infrequency or irregularity of
defecation,abnormal hardening of stools that make their passage difficult and sometimes painful,a decrease in stool volume or retention of stool in the rectum for a prolonged period.In other words,a person who has had hard stools and has not had a bowel movement for two or more days is said to be constipated.Any variation from normal habits may be considered a problem.
 
     Constipation may be as a result of the following:
1.Dietary habits i.e low consumption of fiber,fruits,vegetables.
2.Inadequate fluid intake.
3.Lack of regular exercise.
4.Ignoring the urge to defecate
5.Immobility.
6.Fatigue/weakness
7.Stress-filled life
8.Certain medications e.g antihypertensives
9.Rectal or anal disorders e.g haemorrhoids(pile)
10.Tumour e.g cancer of the bowel e.t.c
    
       Constipation can be prevented or managed by doing the following:
1.Intake of at least 2L of water daily to provide adequate hydration.
2.Intake of high-fiber foods to promote the bulk in the stool and to make it easier to pass faeces through the rectum.
3.Always heed the urge to defecate as promptly as possible.
4.Regular exercises helps to strengthen abdominal muscles and thus enhances regular bowel movements
5.Bowel habit training.

Sunday, 6 October 2013

INTRODUCTION

Hello everyone,
      My name is Opeyemi Ayandele,I'm a registered nurse.I would like to educate you on home remedies/first aid treatments as well as how you can manage minor illnesses in the absence of a medical professional or before you get access to a medical facilty.I promise you a great time here on my blog.You can always drop your comments and ofcourse questions.Thank you and have a great week ahead.